MICROSCOPE AND SPECIMEN PREPARATION

INTRODUCTION Microbiology is the study of organisms too small to be seen distinctly with the unaided eyes. The nature of this discipline makes the microscope of crucial importance because the study of microorganisms is impossible without the microscope. Microscopes provide magnification which enables us to see microorganisms and study their structures. The magnification attained by…

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THE RELEVANCE AND SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY

INTRODUCTION Modern microbiology is a large discipline with different specialised areas. This is because the entire ecosystem depends on the activities of microorganisms and microorganisms influence human society in countless ways. Microbiology has a great impact on medicine, agriculture, food science, ecology, genetics, biochemistry and other fields. In this unit, we shall examine the different…

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIA

INTRODUCTION Bacteria are characterised based on the cell shape, size and structure cell arrangement, occurrence of special structures and developmental forms, staining reactions and motility and flagella arrangement. They are also characterised by the cell wall component, Gram stain reaction, cellular respiration and mode of nutrition. This unit examines the general characteristics of bacteria, shapes…

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI

 INTRODUCTION Fungi are eukaryotic spore bearing organisms that lack chlorophyll and generally reproduce both sexually and asexually. They are of great practical and scientific importance. One of the reasons for this is that many fungi are of microscopic cellular dimensions. Fungi have a diversity of morphological appearances depending on the species. Fungi comprise the molds,…

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES

 INTRODUCTION Viruses are acellular entities. They are genetic elements that cannot replicate independently of a living cell called the host cell. Viruses have extracellular forms which enable them to exist outside the host for long periods. But to multiply, they have to enter a cell in which they can replicate causing infection. Viruses are the…

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ALGAE

INTRODUCTION Algae (singular, alga) are unicellular microorganisms that have chlorophyll and are photosynthetic. Algae are heterogeneous and range from microscopic unicellular forms to macroscopic seaweeds. They are different from green plants due to their simple reproductive structure for sexual reproduction. Many live in aquatic environments but many also thrive as subterranean algae. Algae are of…

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COMPOSITION OF THE MICROBIAL WORLD

INTRODUCTION Microbiology is the study of microorganisms. These are organisms too small to be seen clearly by the unaided eyes. Microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and entities at the borderline of life that are called viruses. The cell is the fundamental unit of life. Most microorganisms are unicellular, in unicellular organisms all the life…

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Viruses-Discovery/HIV-AIDS VIRUS

Introduction Viruses are extremely small organisms. They are even smaller than bacteria. You know that you cannot see bacteria with your naked eyes. You can see bacteria with an optical microscope but you cannot see virus with optical microscope. There is a kind of microscope called electron microscope, it uses electron beam instead of light….

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