COMMUNICATION

1.0 INTRODUCTION Communication is considered to be the most important and most effective aspect of the management process. Interpersonal communication is fundamental to all managerial activities. All other functions involve some form of directions and feedback. Effective management is a function of effective communication. Many operations have failed because of poor communication, misunderstood messages and…

Read more

THE DIRECTING AND LEADING FUNCTION

1.0 INTRODUCTION Directing is concerned with channeling human efforts towards the achievement of organisational goal. The success of these directional efforts is going to determine the satisfactory or unsatisfactory performance within the organisation. Accordingly, the directing function is the action function that tests the managerial capability in running the organisation. The satisfactory performance of workers…

Read more

DECISION-MAKING IN BUSINESS

1.0 INTRODUCTION In business, there are absolutely no right or wrong decisions but intelligent choices. What one considers a right decision in a particular time frame may turn out to be an unintelligent decision if the circumstances change. This is particularly true in developing countries where most of the variables required for intelligent decision are…

Read more

EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

1.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous units you learnt about employee recruitment and selection. This unit will deal with employee training and development. Employee training and development are at the heart of employee utilisation, productivity, commitment, motivation and growth. Many employees have failed in organisations because their need for training was not identified and provided for…

Read more

MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS AND BEHAVIOUR

1.0 INTRODUCTION There is no human endeavour that does not require proper management to make room for proper functioning. All types of organisations (whether profit making or non-profit making), government establishments, business enterprises, hospitals, cooperatives, churches, require good management to function effectively. Management is one of the most important human activities that permeate all organisations….

Read more

EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THEORY

1.0 INTRODUCTION Management is as old as man. There are several theories and principles under which the discipline operates. The principles guiding operations of managers have evolved over time. The evolutionary or development of management is spread over several periods. Therefore in this unit, we shall be studying the evolutionary process of management as a…

Read more

PLANNING

1.0 INTRODUCTION Planning has been defined previously as one of the five major functions of management. However, since planning is a bridge between the present and the future, it has been called the primary management function. Planning is particularly important because of scarce resources and uncertain environment with a fierce competition for these resources. Planning…

Read more

DELEGATION AND DECENTRALISATION OF AUTHORITY

1.0 INTRODUCTION In this unit, you will be introduced to delegation of responsibilities and decentralisation of authority. You will learn about the key principles of delegation, why executives find it difficult to delegate; and overcoming barriers to delegation. You will also learn about task specialisation, span of control, factors that affect span of management as…

Read more